Daily Archives

3 Articles

Posted by gamehorizons on

How to add jump throw bind in CS:GO | Game Horizons

How to add jump throw bind in CS:GO | Game Horizons

Brief: You want to throw one-click jump grenades? Here’s how to add the CS:GO Hop Throw Bind.

Only a small portion of the players can fit a grenade throw with a jump perfectly. Perfect timing, no lag and a lot of practise are needed for manual execution of this operation.

Unfortunately, there is always the possibility of making a mistake, even though we practise it every day. It is worth using a bind in order to have a 100 percent successful CS: GO jump throw.

What is Jump-throw CS:GO?

A difficult technique for throwing a nade at CS:GO PS4 is jump-throw. It’s about unlocking the grenade immediately after the hop and tossing it. This is required in difficult areas that are not available with a normal throw to hit a smoke grenade.

(Click the right mouse button if the video does not load and press “Play”)

Good to know: In Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, the jump-throw technique is not just used for smoking.

Actually, for all grenades, it works perfectly: it helps you to throw nades at very far distances or to flash over high buildings. It’s also used for difficult Molotovs on some maps.

How to incorporate the throw-bind jump?

Configuring the config or autoexec.cfg file by inserting these parameters is the easiest way to add jump throw bind:

"+jumpthrow" alias: "+jump;-attack"
"-jumpthrow" alias "-jump"

Add Csgo Jump Throw to Jump Throw
Opening the console and pasting the following alias commands is another way to set jump throw connect CS:GO in the game:

Alias '+jumpthrow' '+jump;-attack'; alias '-jumpthrow' '-jump'; bind 'v' '+jumpthrow' to '+jumpthrow'

How is the bind used?

1. In order to throw a nade, take a spot.

2. By holding the left mouse button, pin out your grenade.

3. A bind key set in the command is pressed (in our case, v).

Are binds allowed for jump throws?

It’s not illegal to use binds in CS: GO, such as jumpthrow connect. You won’t get banned from using it in most situations, although there are exceptions to the law.

On MM, Faceit or ESEA, is jump throw legal?

Yeah, the jump throw is totally legal-you’re not going to get a suspension for it. It can be used in normal matchmaking and matches (pugs & hubs) on ESEA and Faceit.

Are jump throws permitted on pro torunas?

All does not always depend on the rules of the tournament and its regulations. Some professional player events do not allow a “alias” (a command that connects two functions on a single button) to be used.

Posted by gamehorizons on

Top 9 Best Puzzle Games Of All Time That You Can Play – Game Horizons

Top 9 Best Puzzle Games Of All Time That You Can Play – Game Horizons

Trying to find a solution to any issue we face is just normal for us. That’s why puzzle games are so intuitive that they make us do something for us that is so normal. Not to mention, they let us have fun while also giving us an opportunity to sharpen our ability to solve problems as well.

The best thing about puzzle games is that there are many types they come in.

There are so many different puzzle games available for you to play and choose from from the classic Tetris to the more modern and ground-breaking games like Portal.

With that said, we decided to round up (in no particular order) some of the best puzzle games of all time to help narrow down your list of choices.

1. The Testigo

The best puzzle games in the genre

Platforms: iOS, PlayStation 4, Android, Xbox One, PC

The Witness, published way back in 2016, is the perfect example of how much you can do with something as easy as a straight line.

Jonathan Blow’s brainchild, The Witness, may not be the kind of game like CS:GO you are into. At first, at least. In its own way, it’s tough and it loves the chance to make life hard for its players.

It’s easy to imagine the average player spending at least a hundred hours attempting to complete The Witness, with more than 650 puzzles available for players to complete and an open-world set up, and still ways away from doing so.

2. Tetris 

Best Puzzle Solver Games on PC

Platforms: Under the Heat, almost any format

5 The Most Anticipated Games

[Publicity] Your video will start soon: 0:18

Delete Ad Skip Skip Ad
Tetris is one of the oldest existing puzzle games. It’s one of the best as well.

A pop culture symbol at this stage is the tetromino shapes that have stood the test of time and countless developers have tried to put their own twist on this age-old classic.

Regardless of what they do, though, it’s going to be a lot of fun as long as it’s the same old Tetris that generations of gamers have come to love.

3. Unraveling / Unraveling 2

Top games that are full of riddles

Platforms: PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Windows from Microsoft

With the amount of puzzle platformers available across various platforms, gamers today are spoiled. But if we were to single out a game (or in this case, a game), Unravel and Unravel 2 would have to go.

Unravel and Unravel 2 have players going through an immersive journey as they discover the environment and solve tricky puzzles of varying complexity around them using Yarny, a scrawny red dude whose body is made entirely of yarn, a game almost fully devoid of combat or bosses.

Unravel and Unravel 2 are some of the best games of the present century, with picturesque visuals and backed up by a stunning soundtrack.

4. Grim Fandango, Grim

The most popular puzzle games

Platforms: Microsoft Windows (Original) / Nintendo Switch (Remastered) / Microsoft Windows, Linux, OS X, PlayStation 4, PS Vita, Android, iOS

First released in 1998, LucasArts’ classic Grim Fandango is more of a storey game than a puzzle game, but it has just enough puzzle game elements to qualify, which is why we felt it was best to include it on our list.

Your goal in Grim Fandango is to try and expose a controversial scheme that is clearly way above your pay grade, playing as Manny Calavero, a travel agent working in the underworld.

Given that for much of the game you will be playing a pseudo-detective, expect a lot of puzzle-solving and clue-searching to happen.

The only downside to playing Grim Fandango is that the visuals just haven’t aged that well. But, for quite some time now the remaster has been out, so if it’s your first time playing the game, you might want to miss it directly and just play the remastered version.

If you happen to have played Grim Fandango in the past already the remaster’s presence is justification enough to play the game again.

5. The Threes

Top Jigsaw Games Ever

IOS, Android, Xbox One Platform:

It’s mobile, if there was ever a platform for which puzzle games were made.

These days, both iOS and Android devices have a bevvy of puzzle games available that multiple articles wouldn’t be enough to mention all of them. But the 2014 number-based matching game, Threes, has very few equals when it comes to one of the best.

The game’s idea is both plain and complicated.

Playing on a grid of four by four, players will have to try to navigate their way through greater numbers while making sure they don’t get trapped. When a player rounds off potential moves, the game ends, making it incredibly necessary to set up several moves each time you make a move.

Threes was once thought of as a game that was unbeatable. A few years later, however one player discovered that it was possible to beat” the game.

If you can’t do it, however, try not to be too harsh on yourself. It is an almost-impossible feat.

Only concentrate on exercising your brain and wasting time instead you’re better off.

6. The Theory for Talos

Top 9 all-time puzzle games

Platforms: Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, PC

The Talos Theory is a puzzle game through and through, so don’t let the FPS visuals and ‘action’ fool you.

The Talos Theory will have you thought for hours on end, easily one of the most complex puzzle games ever written, while also dousing you with a good dose of philosophical questions that will have you questioning the morality of your in-game decisions.

The Talos Theory should be sufficient to keep even the most avid of puzzle gamers busy for days if not weeks, with several endings possible, all of which are dependent on the type of choices you make in the game.


7. Saga Sugar Crush

Best Games for Handheld Puzzles

Browser, iOS, Android, Fire OS, Windows Phone, Microsoft Windows, etc. Platforms:

If Tetris proved one thing with its enduring existence, it’s that puzzle games don’t always have to try to complicate things to be famous.

With simple and addictive dynamics that make it available to the global crowd, Candy Crush Saga takes it to heart.

All the players need to do in the Candy Crush Saga is easy. To score, pair three of the same icons with each other. The more icons you have paired, the higher the score will go. For consecutive pairings, or for pairing more than three icons, bonus points are awarded.

Candy Crush Saga is not necessarily going to make things complicated, and it doesn’t have to.

Candy Crush Saga is a no-brainer when you’re looking for a fun puzzle game to play to pass the time.

8. Portal / Portal 2 / Portal 2

Best PS44 Puzzle Games

PC, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 Platforms:

Much has been said about Valve’s two classics, and yet, words can’t really seem to do justice to these two games.

Portal and its sequel, Portal 2, are the perfect examples of why video games should be viewed as a medium of art, turning the gaming world on its head when they are first published.

Introducing a unique mechanic where players use portals to go to-and-fro and solve the numerous puzzles of the game, both Portal games have everything they need.

There’s a reason so many people consider the Portal games borderline great, from inventive gameplay to accessibility, as well as a well-written storey and plotline that isn’t afraid to incorporate both light-hearted and dark humour at appropriate times.

Portal and Portal 2 will certainly have you scratching your head trying to solve puzzles, as well as maybe making your own, with an editing tool and tonnes of workshop content available.

9. Braid-Braid

Best Games for Puzzles

The following platforms: PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PC

Arguably, Braid is the greatest PC game you have ever heard of.

Actually, Braid flew under the radar of most gamers that if I told you the game was released in 2008 and was both a critical and commercial success, you probably wouldn’t trust me.

Mind you, it’s not a dream game for Braid. Far from that in fact. First and foremost, as a 2D indie game, it suffers from a few hiccups, but none that are big enough of a deal to take away from the overall gameplay experience, which is almost unequalled.

Controversies about Braid being a magnet for individuals who want to claim to be smart aside (the game’s purposely vague plot leaves a lot for interpretation), the game does a fantastic job of making you feel like a genius whenever you manage to solve its series of puzzles that are deceptively simple and well-designed.

All in all, there are only a handful that are as good as Braid when it comes to puzzle games, let alone better.

In a nutshell, in short,

A puzzle game is a video game genre that, among many other problem-solving abilities, has players solving puzzles using logic and pattern recognition.

Puzzle games have grown continuously to feature a number of innovative ideas since the days of Tetris back in the 1980s, often helping to inspire a player to try to use their creativity and curiosity to pass each level.

Puzzle games take strong influence from crossword puzzles and sudoku, if it was not already clear enough.

Puzzle video games are actually going through a bit of a revival. The introduction of smartphones, among others, helped bring the once “dead” genre back to life after having very few memorable releases in the 2000s, and now, gamers have thousands, if not hundreds, of games to choose from with the number increasing by the day.

Don’t be afraid to explore if you’ve already played through all the games that we suggested and you’re searching for more.

The puzzle game genre should have plenty to give to help please your ever-curious and ever-imaginative mind, from conventional puzzle games to innovative and inventive takeovers, as well as puzzle platformers.

Posted by gamehorizons on

All CS:GO Launch Options (2020) | Game Horizons

All CS:GO Launch Options (2020) | Game Horizons

Brief: Do you plan to adapt advanced game parameters to your requirements? Here’s what you need to hear about launch choices for CS:GO.

The game will automatically load the default settings and launch parameters that it considers best when you start CS:GO and NFS for the first time. Unfortunately, for most teams, the simple configuration won’t be optimal.

This is why you should be dreaming about adding parameters to your own. The ready-made Steam tool helps you to do it quickly.

You can find out what the launch choices are in this guide, how to configure them, and which are the best in CS: GO. A full list of all the known choices can also be found here. In addition, we have not forgotten to specify obsolete or counterproductive instructions that you should not use.

Unknown information about choices for launch

Launch options are custom parameters indicating which settings should be loaded at the start of the game. They bypass the internal game settings as they have the highest priority. You can configure CS: GO to meet your own needs or the specifications of your device by using them.
In a thoughtful way, using Steam launch parameters will speed up the loading of the CS: GO process, alter the appearance of individual elements, or even increase the output of the game.

The latter is particularly important because every player wants to increase the amount of FPS and play without delays.

Note: The parameter -high is a widely used setting that is not recommended for use. It causes high input lag on most computers!

You have to realise that there is currently no such thing as CS: GO’s best launch choices. About why? Because every player and every machine is different, and human predispositions should always be adapted to the commands.

Here’s what you need to do about releasing options for Steam:

No launch solutions are available that are best for everyone. You have to choose the choices depending on your needs, device and internet connection) that are right for you.
You can verify and evaluate each launch parameter separately. On one computer, some performance-related commands can increase FPS, but reduce it on another.
Valve eliminates redundant starting options from time to time. This makes a lot of players use obsolete commands that don’t work (at the end of this guide, we’ll list them). 😉
For debugging problems, launch options are useful. They can be used to address different problems with the application and repair incompatible graphics settings.

Note: -nod3d9ex is the most widely used launch method that doesn't exist. You can disable it if you have mentioned it in your settings.

In 2020, the best CS:GO launch choices

We stated in the previous section that the best launch options do not exist. We did, however, name this headline that way. About why? Because that’s obviously not what you learned, and that’s why you searched for the best settings.

“The most useful and popular options” would be a much better title, but then you would likely not find our guide. We’re sorry for that! 🙂

Set 1: Best choices for launch in 2020

It wasn’t that easy to identify the criteria that could be considered the best. We had to select the settings so that on any device they would be successful. After checking each of the commands individually, it turned out that there were only three commands in the best package. Really Really!

The best launch choices for CSGO – 2020
In 2019 and 2020, here are the “best” CS:GO launch options:

-novid -tickrate 128 + fps max 0

You may now be wondering how it is possible that there are only 3 simple commands in the set of best start choices.

Well in CS: GO, there is a false conviction that the more parameters, the stronger. This is an incredible error! In fact, the less orders, the less problems.

Tip: You probably don’t need 99% of all the launch parameters if you have a high-end PC. A Valve employee who wrote on Reddit that “Best launch options are not launch options” confirmed this. The most used and most tested are them.

Set 2: Most useful choices for launching higher FPS

Most of the commands players use to enhance performance do not really enhance it or just minimally improve it. Lags that are not apparent at first sight can also be triggered. Is it worth a longer delay of 5 ms to achieve 30 FPS? It depends that.

Options to launch CSGO for higher fps
Here are options for CS:GO start for more FPS:

Novid -nojoy -fullscreen -r emulate gl -limitvsconst -forcenovsync -softparticlesdefaultoff +mat queue mode 2 +r dynamic 0 +cl forcepreload 1 -tickrate 128 +fps max 0

FPS boost launch options can be used when:

If you are playing on a low-end PC or laptop and have very little FPS (below 120 FPS), use these options.
If you have at least 2x more FPS than the display frequency (e.g. at least 288 FPS and 144 HZ), don’t use these options.

Learn carefully how they operate and what the implications are before you apply these parameters! In the next section of this guide, you will find an explanation.

Tip: The launch options above will increase the FPS number, but will most likely increase the input lag. Do not use them if you have a strong machine and your AVATAR game is running smoothly!

Set 3: Most of the pro players’ valuable launch choices

You probably won’t get any response when you ask professional players for the best launch choices. These players do not concentrate on these aspects of the game, as they have a high-end PC with a large number of FPSs.

Csgo launch options provided by pro players
Here are the CS:GO launch options for pro players:

-console -novid -freq 240 -tickrate 128 +config.cfgg exec

As you can see, the only fundamental parameters are used by most pro players, which are limited to a few commands.

Good to know: Usually, pro players have 240 hz cameras. You have to change the value of the -freq parameter if you don’t have it.

List of all CS:GO launch options at work
We took a lot of time gathering the most common CSGO launch options and extensively testing them. We tested them for performance and quality. We have created a brief description of each parameter, based on the information collected.

In CS:GO:, here are the most commonly used launch options.

-console — Opens the console when a game is entered: this launch option will automatically open the console when the game is opened. However most players would not need this order because the console can be easily opened using the toggle key. Naturally, the most widely used key is ~.

-novid & -novideo-Removes the intro display after the game has started: This start parameter will allow the game to start quicker since the start video will be completely removed. This is a very important command in some cases to prevent a ban on AFK. It’s easier not to waste 10 seconds watching the intro because you have little time to access the server.

-nojoy-Disables in-game joystick support: This start command allows you to disable joystick support to use less resources for the game. It’s mostly about lower RAM intake, which increases game efficiency according to some fans.

Good to know: The joystick support currently uses approximately 20 MB (0.02 GB of RAM. You don’t need to add this boot option, as long as you have more than 2 GB of RAM on your device.

-tickrate 128 — Sets the maximum possible tickrate on local servers: one of the most commonly set parameters is this launch option and should be included in the settings of each player. Using it the game runs in offline mode on 128 TR (for example, on training maps) and on a private server. This is going to make the game easier and more fun.

-high-Gives a high priority to the CS: GO process: This parameter will give the device the highest priority to the Counter-Strike process. Theoretically, since it will be more critical than other applications in the framework, this should increase the performance of the game. We do not suggest this setting, however as the distinction will not be visible.

Tip: The -High parameter is useless on most machines. We suggest that you review the game’s output before and after setting it up. It has begun to cause problems recently and has stopped functioning properly.

+mat queue mode 2 — Assigns the CS:GO process to all threads and processor cores: This option is simply a console command that forces multithreading automatically. This will allow all processor cores to be used by Counter-Strike. Though increasing input lag, this can improve FPS, so just do this on an old computer.

Tip: Potential values are -1, 0, 1 and 2 for this parameter. The importance of a particular device should be balanced. A value of -1 uses the default threading mode, a value of 0 uses the single thread synchronous mode, a value of 1 uses the single thread queuing mode, and a value of 2 uses the multi-threaded mode.

-fullscreen / -full-Starts the game in full-screen mode: This command causes CS:GO to run in full-screen mode, and some graphical configuration problems can be resolved. We suggest using this method because disabling the Windows UI decreases resource usage. This will increase the number of FPSs.

-windowed / -window — Begins the game in window mode: the starting option is the opposite of the previous option, since the window mode is enforced. As this is a normal Windows mode, it enables you to reduce your game (“ALT+TAB”) faster while compromising efficiency at the same time.

-noborder-Removes the application border and imitates full-screen mode: This parameter allows the border (app name bar and Min/Max/Max/X icons) to be removed entirely when window mode is allowed. Enabling this setting would make it look as though the programme is in full screen mode.

-w / -width — Sets the width (resolution) of the game window: This launch command sets the width of the CS:GO application if the window mode is allowed. You can set a custom resolution for it which is not available in the game options.

-h / -height — Sets the game window height (resolution): This command configures the game resolution, like the previous command. If you want to pick the height of a custom application in window mode, use it.

-refresh / -freq — Adjusts the refresh rate of the display: this parameter selects how many times the pixels on the monitor will be refreshed every second. For your monitor, you can select the highest possible value. If there is 144hz on your computer, enter 144.

Tip: The -refresh and -freq parameters are redundant if you have already selected the maximum refresh rate in the Windows options or graphics card settings. Delete this parameter to verify this and type mat info 1 into the console to see which refresh rate CS:GO works at.

-language — Change the language of the game: This option allows you to change the language of the simple game. Using it you can select a separate Steam client language and a separate CS:GO language. In the game, most players have their native language set on Steam and English.

+exec .cfg — Loads the configuration given: this console command allows you to load an extra configuration file. If you want to override standard settings from config.cfg or load additional commands such as 1v1 commands, this will be quite helpful.

-nocrashdialog — Disables console error display: This launch parameter allows the console to interrupt the error display. This choice is preferred by some players because most mistakes do not matter to us. If we are going to debug the game, it is worth turning it on.

-r emulate gl Allows OpenGL emulation: This launch option will launch Windows OpenGL emulation, which can result in a dramatic increase in FPS on weaker computers. In particular, this refers to obsolete graphics card models.

Note: Sadly, most guides to launch options disperse details about the command -r emulate g. However, such an order doesn’t exist.

Limits the number of vertex shaders: This command is an advanced parameter for graphics that causes CS:GO to limit the number of vertex shaders to 256. To improve game efficiency, players with budget graphics cards can test it.

-forcenovsync — Disables the VSync feature: This parameter forces the game to disable VSync. To prevent screen tearing, VSync is an initial vertical synchronisation technology. This technology is far from perfect, however, and can trigger so-called FPS blocks (G-Sync and FreeSync are its successors).

Tip: In the graphics card settings or the game options, most players disable vertical synchronisation. If you’ve done the same thing, do not apply it to the launch parameters again.

-softparticlesdefaultoff — Adjusts the particle rendering settings: This startup option sets particle rendering (without feathering) using the scene depth blending tool. When grenade explosions happen near you, that restricts FPS drops.

+r dynamic 0 Turns off dynamic lighting: Another parameter influencing the graphics of the game is this instruction. Setting the value to 0 will disable certain in-game lighting features, which, especially when battling an enemy, will minimally increase the amount of FPS.

Good to know: Dynamic lighting during the shooting and flash explosion is used in flash. In order to see how it feels, watch this video.

-disable d3d9ex — Disables the default enabled d3d9ex mode: This boot option will disable the d3d9ex mode at the start of the game. Its main benefit is that it can help overcome certain issues with graphics. But it does have a few drawbacks as well. Minimizing the game may take a little longer when you add it and CPU consumption can increase.

-nopreload Forces no preloading of models: This option prevents the preloading of models and textures when connecting to the server. If you add it you’ll connect to the server faster, but after entering the game, you can experience a lag for the first few dozen seconds.

Tip: Disabling preloading will cause FPS drops on older computers, as during gameplay, the game may have to use additional resources. This applies, however, only to weaker computers with little RAM and an obsolete processor!

Harmful launch options or not running
It turned out during the research that there are several starting parameters that don’t work or worsen the game’s output. Many manuals on the Internet, sadly, spread incorrect information and do not update command lists. This implies that obsolete criteria are still used by most players.

CSGO launch options are dangerous or non-functional here:

-lv-Reduces game violence: This launch option triggered blood shortages and added kneeling after death to the model of the opponent. Some time after, it was removed.

+violence hblood 0- Disables the show of blood when an enemy is struck in the game: This order limits the depiction of violence in the game, like the -lv command. It was withdrawn a couple of years ago, however.

-threads-Chooses the number of CPU threads used by CS:GO: This parameter has become redundant and can trigger problems with performance. It was replaced by the command “+mat queue mode,” and a Valve employee cautioned against its use in 2017.

-no-browser — Shuts the server browser off: this feature disabled the view of the in-game browser after it joined the server, but was removed in 2018.

Disables mouse acceleration and in-game button configuration: These start options refer to device mouse settings, but do not function within CS:GO. -noforcemparms & -noforcemaccel.

Tip: Use m customaccel…, m mouseaccel… if you would like to handle acceleration and custom mouse settings. Commands and m rawinput.

+cl forcepreload 1 Forces the loading before entering the server of all textures and graphic and sound effects: this command improved the number of FPS a few years ago, but prolonged the time required to connect to the server. It can now cause a game crash, so it was suggested by Valve employees to delete this parameter in 2019.

-noaafonts-Removes the font smoothing effect: this parameter is obsolete and for many years, has not modified the font appearance or increased the FPS number.

-nod3d9ex-Disables some of DirectX 9’s features: This launch option never really existed and was a joke.

Good to know: Several professional players have also been trolled and used the parameter -nod3d9ex. Coldzera, who had been using this order for many years, was one of them.

-r emulate g- Will make the game emulate OpenGL: This parameter does not exist, like the previous instruction. It’s hard to tell why it started being used by teams, but it’s most likely a typo. -r emulate gl is the right instruction.

+mat disable fancy blending 1 Forces to disable the fancy blending of textures: This graphic parameter has enhanced CS: GO output, but was removed during the update in August 2019.

-d3d9ex-Enables d3d9ex mode: This option greatly reduces time and Processor usage to minimise the game. It was permanently added to the game code some time ago, so you no longer have to apply it to the launch parameters. Using -disable d3d9ex if you’d like to disable it.

In CS:GO, how to set launch options?

In the game itself, most of the settings available in the launch options can be changed. Some of them, sadly, can only be set before the game begins. You have to use a ready-made tool which is available in the Steam library to use them.

Here’s how to customise the launch options for CS:GO on Steam:

1. Open the Library on Steam
Start by logging into your account on Steam. “Open the “Library” tab after opening the app, right-click on “Counter-Strike: Global Offensive” and pick “Properties”.

In steam library, open cs:go properties

2. Edit options to launch

Click on the ‘Set launch options’ button when the Properties window opens. You may add or remove launch parameters here. Click ‘Save’ when you’re done.

Edit Steam Start Options

Note that when the game is switched off the starting options should be edited. You must restart it if you have changed your settings while the game is on!

Good to know: -novid, which disables the intro when the game begins, and -exec autoexec.cfg, which loads the custom config file, are the most common start-up choices among our users.


The parameters that are used when launching Counter-Strike are CS:GO launch options. They allow you to overwrite standard settings, which makes them useful for problem debugging and game performance testing.

No single set of solutions is available that is best for all. It all depends on the setup and interests you have.

You should then select your own settings and not use ready-made command sets (for example, to increase FPS).

Recall that the list of launch parameters is continually updated. Valve can add new commands and uninstall old commands. It also adjusts the operation of the current parameters often, but does not publish information about it. This makes a lot of players use alternatives that either do not work or cause issues with results.